Moving away from the dictionary-copying model of instruction and toward explicit, direct instruction of vocabulary is a necessary change to empower our students for long-term academic success. I hope this post gave you a starting point for planning systematic vocabulary instruction in the primary grades! For each lesson created with Vocabulary A-Z, you will get: graphic organizers, a vocabulary lesson, activities and games, and a week’s worth of vocabulary instruction. Believe me, they are listening to every word you say. Quick and easy lesson plans to teach vocabulary through authentic texts for kindergarten, first, and second grade. See more ideas about vocabulary activities, vocabulary, teaching reading. They are asked to find three synonyms, two antonyms, and draw one sketch of the given vocabulary term. On Vocabulary.com, students only master a word after they have demonstrated an understanding of all of the word's meanings, and … So let me show you a set of vocabulary activities that will provide your students with various opportunities for vocabulary practice in your elementary classroom. PrAACtical AAC's Mission: To improve the level of AAC services available to individuals with significant communication challenges by supporting speech-language pathologists and other interested stakeholders. For AAC learners, the games should be highly motivating. Words are also learned through direct instruction, where students learn words through a structured approach. They will be begging you to play games! A timer is set for one minute while each player completes three activities for a vocabulary word. Stahl’s model (1999) sees vocabulary instruction as an ongoing process that involves using different approaches: 1. Your email address will not be published. November 24, 2012 Students gain points accordingly and are highly competitive activities! Children learn word meanings indirectly in three ways: They engage … Instruction is vital for education, as it is the transfer of learning from one person to another. Vocabulary is not an isolated skill. Find engaging, meaningful activities that will help your learners make the words their own. Therefore, I have created a series of vocabulary activities for your students. We have learners participate in short skits, do obstacle courses that are dependent on using target vocabulary to continue on the ‘path’. Discover (and save!) Students “earn” one dollar for each word used in the sentences. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print. Mind maps are excellent brain-based vocabulary . That means you will be able to use your vocabulary words or terms from your curriculum. Any time you are given directions or told how to do something you are receiving instruction. The Vocabulary Related Words activity provides students with the opportunity to use the base word of a vocabulary term in various forms. Jun 21, 2020 - Vocabulary Activities For Any WordThis is a set of twenty different activities that you can use with any vocabulary word with students in grades kindergarten, first grade, second grade, third grade, fourth grade, fifth grade, and sixth grade. Step six: Students play games to review new vocabulary . But then usually we figure it out and it works better than we had thought. Many educators feel that a strong vocabulary program just makes sense. Discover (and save!) Play continues around the circle, with students collecting vocabulary cards. Flocabulary’s new vocab cards are based on the Frayer model, and encourage students to define new vocabulary words on their own terms through writing and drawing. Together we will engage and support young writers in their writing journey. The classroom teacher fills out a vocabulary form each week with the new terms to teach. Welcome to ESL Printables, the website where English Language teachers exchange resources: worksheets, lesson plans, activities, etc. Step two: Students restate or explain the new word in their own words. Engaging students in a variety of activities that relate to target words is one way to achieve this. Here are four key benefits of supporting your students in developing a strong vocabulary toolbox and ways you can enhance your vocabulary instruction: See more ideas about vocabulary instruction, vocabulary activities, teaching. Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively. A perfect activity to expand students’ vocabulary! We told them that they were going to learn some new labels for concepts that were already familiar to them. The best part is, you no longer have to wait for students to do all the copying. Key features common among all three of these explicit vocabulary teaching strategies include: repeated exposure to words, child friendly definitions provided by the teacher, and labeling the target word for the child first instead of having the children guess the word. The main goal of direct vocabulary instruction is more than learning a new list of words, it is learning robust word knowledge so that language skills can be broadened. Grounded in research, the book explains how to select words for instruction, introduce their meanings, and create engaging learning activities that promote both word knowledge and reading comprehension. Consider these vocabulary instruction steps by Robert Marzano. The more students understand vocabulary, the more they will be able to understand what they read, what they hear, and how they speak. This discussion took different forms, including discussion of examples and non-examples, pantomimes, and having students say "Yay" if the word was used correctly in a sentence and "Boo" if it was not. On the first day, the new words were defined, and students discussed the use of each word in context. Learn it. Children need to have a rich vocabulary that continually grows through language and literacy experiences, in order to comprehend and construct increasingly complex texts, and engage in oral language for a variety of social purposes. A teacher-friendly and straightforward resource! Studies have shown that students who have a larger vocabulary tend to do well in school—and not just in ELA, but STEM subjects, as well. Think about the natural reinforcement and feedback a learner gets with this. Then, we hang them on our Fancy Nancy Words board to use in our writing. Then they switch roles. If students apply the meaning of word parts to unfamiliar words, they can determine the meaning of new content-area academic vocabulary. Quick and easy lesson plans to teach vocabulary through authentic texts for kindergarten, first, and second grade. Have students pick a color or use a rating scale about aspects of the words. They are asked to find three synonyms, two antonyms, and draw one sketch of the given vocabulary term. In one study of exemplary vocabulary instruction, activities were conducted in a five-day cycle. If a student draws a “BOOM!” card, he/she returns all cards collected! Step three: Ask students to create a non-linguistic representation of the word. Vocabulary instruction experts all recommend a multi-component approach to developing vocabulary knowledge. You may also want to check out my Third Grade Vocabulary Task Cards! The player with the most money wins! Also, you may use language from any subject area. Photo credit: Ben … I was reminded of the need for explicit vocabulary instruction during a study skills course that I took with Landmark Outreach. Vocabulary instruction is an important part of reading and language arts classes, as well as content-area classes such as science and social studies. We embed new vocabulary in activities using all of the language modalities- reading, writing, talking, and listening. For some activities, like drawing pictures that represent vocabulary words, ... Teachers like Mr. Kirk use this method in many areas of instruction including vocabulary. Many of the strategies and activities are part of general vocabulary teaching. Oct 1, 2013 - This Pin was discovered by Suzanne Downing. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Vocabulary instruction. South Florida Web Design and WordPress Development by SoFla Web Studio. Games, strategies, bulletin boards, lessons, and other activities to assist elementary students with vocabulary development, context clues, and definitions of new words. Students develop reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge with these engaging activities. However, it can serve as an equalizer and an important asset for our learners. Take pictures of everyone’s representations and arrange into a ‘power point’ movie. Key features common among all three of these explicit vocabulary teaching strategies include: repeated exposure to words, child friendly definitions provided by the teacher, and labeling the target word for the child first instead … Traditional vocabulary instruction relies heavily on rote memorization. activities that help students retain the definition of a word instead of memorizing it for a quiz and forgetting it. This game has an abundance of vocabulary practice! I Need My Monster Activities that Free Childhood Fears, Peter H Reynolds Be You! Study Skills in Early Elementary School: Vocabulary Instruction Strategies and Activities. Any time you are given directions or told how to do something you are receiving instruction. Get a Rush From Selling Teaching Resources Online, Vocabulary Word-auto filled by the teacher. Graves (2000) has advocated a four-part program that includes wide reading, teaching individual words, teaching word learning strategies, and fostering word consciousness. While I created this activity for my English classroom, this activity works well for any subject. Vocabulary.com teaches words by systematically exposing students to a wide array of question types, real-world examples, and activities. Vocabulary instruction. A vocabulary game that never ends. Syllables-student place swoops or dashes between syllables on the vocabulary word. Effective vocabulary instruction provides students with opportunities to interact with target words frequently and in different contexts (Beck et al., 2013). Using Robust Vocabulary Instruction in Practice •Select a set of tier 2 words •Develop Zstudent friendly explanations •Create some brief activities that will initiate their engagement with the words and their meaning Selecting Tier 2 words •Remember: important & useful, moveable, provide extra specificity, potential to instruct. Watch out. The first is that for vocabulary to be learned both receptively and productively direct attention to meaning and use is neces-sary. Each student has one worksheet with four vocabulary terms. Please share with us your favorite vocabulary instruction activities. They are book embedded vocabulary instruction, network activities and category activities. Research suggests that vocabulary instruction should include the following components: definitional and contextual information about a word; multiple exposures to a word in different contexts; and encouragement of students' active participation in their own learning of the new words.1 Here are 15 vocabulary activities that you can integrate into your classroom starting tomorrow! vocabulary instruction and word knowledge shows that there is a robust correlation between knowing words and comprehending text (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2008). Pair up Rich Vocabulary with Synonymous but Simpler Words. Some students will love this vocabulary instruction time and work well with partners, while others are not naturally good at interacting with peers. We Don’t Eat Our Classmates Activities to the Rescue! Decide your core word vocabulary to teach and begin with strategies, steps, and fun activities. Use Word Spokes within Word Study & Vocab Development--Greek and Latin root-word instruction is an essential component of vocabulary development. Provide extra credit if a student hears or sees a vocabulary word anywhere outside of the vocabulary exercises. will help your students master their vocab list in no time! We use planned vocabulary instruction activities as well as unexpected opportunities to embed new vocabulary. tally, where vocabulary is developed through immersion in language activities. In this context, one learner may hold a vocabulary box while the other puts vocabulary pictures in. The student would respond with the words write, friends, friendship, friendly. See more ideas about vocabulary activities, vocabulary, vocabulary instruction. Use pictures, symbols, text to help students re-state words. Instead, we readily admit there are times we do not know things. This post is part of a series about helping students with LBLD experience academic success.. Read Lauren’s other blog posts: Organization of Materials Achieve vocabulary standards for diverse learners! One of my favorite vocabulary activities is to use Fancy Nancy books to teach vocabulary. Keep a list of vocabulary activities your students respond to. The graphic organizer featured above consists of the following key elements: The resource featured above is a simple one-page product, printed front to back. See more ideas about Vocabulary, Vocabulary activities, Vocabulary instruction. It is based on all areas of communication — listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Discover (and save!) Have each learner participate in part of the activity to make it whole. Required fields are marked *. 1. Have students assemble or find objects to represent the word. by Robin Parker - Vocabulary Activities can grab the attention of your most reluctant learners. Money in the Bank Vocabulary Activity provides the student with the opportunity to use their vocabulary in sentences. Words for BEGINNERS (Grades 3–6), from Vocabulary Word of the Day Even if your students are beginning Word Watchers, they will have fun learning synonyms for “beginner.” Students in kindergarten, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade can greatly benefit from vocabulary instruction! Always look for what will make the experience motivating. your own Pins on Pinterest The students will then ask yes or no questions until they can guess the vocabulary word. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. By giving students explicit instruction in vocabulary, teachers help them learn the meaning of new words and strengthen their independent skills of … The best way to teach vocabulary is to get our students to use vocabulary.These five free downloadable vocabulary activities from Read it.Write it. If food is not an attraction for your learners, sit in special comfy chairs, or add super fun music to the power point. Vocabulary instruction. Word meanings make up as much as 70 to 80 percent of comprehension. While many knowledge-rich curricula might emphasize the importance of vocabulary and identify key vocabulary words in each lesson (typically Tier Three), ultimately the quality and robustness of vocabulary instruction comes down to teacher expertise and judgement. The 3, 2, 1 Vo-cab-go! Word map activities allows students to think about vocabulary in several ways, and further make connections with each word in relation to other words they already know. In general, vocabulary can be described as oral vocabulary or reading vocabulary. Participants in the pre‐reading instruction and instruction‐only conditions then completed the vocabulary activities. We might relate a word like ‘rapidly’ to a timed bean bag game or a word like ‘coordinate’ to a group recipe. If you want to download you have to send your own contributions. Many times our kids will surprise us and even come up with a non-linguistic representation we don’t ‘get’ at first. Retention is ultimately the goal of vocabulary instruction, but in order to get there, teachers need to differentiate their instruction and practice activities to reach all types of learners, which includes adding variety through learning styles and critical thinking levels. I help elementary writing teachers motivate students through guided instructional resources that students love! I genuinely mean it. Advancement Courses offers a dedicated course on the topic, “Own Your Words: Effective Vocabulary Instruction,” which helps teachers learn how to select appropriate vocabulary for instruction, create meaningful learning activities and games, address the needs of English Language Learners (ELLs), and plan differentiated vocabulary instruction for students of all levels. Students will thoroughly analyze a specified word six different ways. These steps were not specifically developed for AAC users but if we add a language focus and a little more fun and active participation, they fit with what we have been writing about all month. So watch out! Let learners interact with the materials, use group communication devices so learners can participate in the conversation. For example: create a visual dictionary definition of the word; use a word map; personify the word with a picture & story; write original sentences; incorporate new words in creative writing; play games using a dry erase lapboard; charades; use a wheel of words! Vocabulary Instruction The importance of vocabulary to reading suggests that formal vocabulary instruction for preschoolers and early elementary students could be beneficial. Engaging students in a variety of activities that relate to target words is one way to achieve this. Effective vocabulary instruction provides students with opportunities to interact with target words frequently and in different contexts (Beck et al., 2013). Successful Classroom Management Plan at it’s Best! Traditional vocabulary instruction relies heavily on rote memorization. Classroom instructions … A timer is set for one minute while each player completes three activities for a vocabulary word. On the first day, the new words were defined, and students discussed the use of each word in context. Vocabulary recipes, bingo , bean bag toss are great ideas but we try and relate the game in some way to the vocabulary theme rather than having unrelated words that just have a fun experience. Fun vocabulary activities. This is also where we build in multiple opportunities to USE new vocabulary. I will also present you with 10 fun ways to help students to learn words, whether this be in English, French, German, Spanish or any other foreign language! If so, click here! For this reason, you may be interested in providing your students with more opportunities to use new vocabulary? We use word walls and word boxes. The following section explores effective vocabulary activities for ELLs. Vocabulary.com teaches words by systematically exposing students to a wide array of question types, real-world examples, and activities. Find 23 ready to use, effective vocabulary activities your students will love, by The Teacher Next Door! Check out this list of vocabulary activities for little to help teach students to read! Indirect vocabulary learning. Two examples of direct vocabulary instruction include: specific word instruction and word learning instruction. In this module, we will be learning three explicit vocabulary instructional strategies. Websites that share effective and engaging vocabulary activities… They are book embedded vocabulary instruction, network activities and category activities. We know that students who are avid readers, tend to have more advanced vocabularies than those who don't and that vocabulary acquisition is a wonderful side effect of reading quality books. The 3, 2, 1 Vo-cab-go! Robust vocabulary instruction is a crucial driver of knowledge-building. Use choice boards with word associations to help the beginning communicator participate. Activities for first lessons 1: CLIL Art and Design - drawing equipment: Drama techniques to get them talking: Erase the dialogue: Getting the whole class talking: Noughts and crosses quiz game: Phonemic symbols: Preposition basketball: Recycling vocabulary: Remember the last class - revision at the beginning of a lesson In one study of exemplary vocabulary instruction, activities were conducted in a five-day cycle. Vocabulary is an essential part of kindergarten literacy instruction. The word bank shown below demonstrates how easy it is to type new vocabulary words or terms each week. For those who need more help, make the pair/share more specific. The example given is the base word friend. This program is targeted for kindergarten to sixth grade students, remedial readers, English language learners, special education students, and struggling readers in general. Below are some resources to support this goal. This post on ’10 Fun Ideas To Teach Vocabulary’ will explore effective methods to improve vocabulary acquisition, as well techniques that should be included to successfully teach words. Step five: Students discuss the new word (pair-share, elbow partners). Feb 19, 2019 - Activities to teach, build, and reinforce vocabulary to enhance comprehension, reading or writing skills. Jan 19, 2018 - Loads of fun vocabulary activities for elementary students. When I assign mind maps in relation to vocabulary words, I generally have students select one word from our list instead of several because the connections will be more meaningful for them. Learn multiple meanings with pictures and then apply the skills to critical thinking, listening, and explaining activ Proper vocabulary instruction doesn’t just teach the definitions of words, but how to critically understand the context while drawing connections outside the lesson plan. If you’re anything like me, I have a solid routine for vocabulary instruction but want my students to use the new language differently. We like to stay within the theme of vocabulary learning but try and stay flexible in case a perfect opportunity arises that allows us to reflect back on an old vocabulary theme or mention a future planned theme. We use planned vocabulary instruction activities as well as unexpected opportunities to embed new vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary programs should be designed to support children’s word learn - #vocabularywords #vocabularyactivities. As a side note, all of the elementary vocabulary activities discussed are EDITABLE! That is, students need both conscious attention and sufficient exposure to effective- ly acquire and employ targeted vocabulary. Developed by Book Activities for the Big Win, Johnny Appleseed Activities for Engaging In More Writing, Read The Cool Bean to Improve Student Relationships Now, The Good Egg Book Companion to Enrich Your Lessons, The Bad Seed Activities for Balanced Literacy. Jun 25, 2018 - Ideas to incorporate more vocabulary instruction in my classroom. Graves (2000) has advocated a four-part program that includes wide reading, teaching individual words, teaching word learning strategies, and fostering word consciousness. Learners can be assigned ‘jobs’ or roles to the ‘vocabulary movie experience’. 2. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. To expand on this, use all of the effective language facilitation, communication-behavior, and reinforcement teaching strategies and apply them to direct vocabulary instruction with AAC learners. A vocabulary game played much like the fashionable game Headbands. http://d97cooltools.blogspot.com/2011/07/cool-tools-for-teaching-vocabulary.html, http://www.marzanoresearch.com/reproducibles/vocabulary_games.aspx#reproducibles, http://www.readingrockets.org/article/9943/, http://www.readingrockets.org/teaching/reading101/vocabulary/literacyapps_vocabulary/, http://adaptingcreatively.blogspot.com/2012/07/one-easy-way-to-increase-vocabulary-on.html, South Florida Web Design and WordPress Development by SoFla Web Studio. Play "vocabulary charades" Have students draw a word from a hat and act it out. This includes helping with decoding (phonemic awareness and phonics), comprehension, and also fluency. While many knowledge-rich curricula might emphasize the importance of vocabulary and identify key vocabulary words in each lesson (typically Tier Three), ultimately the quality and robustness of vocabulary instruction comes down to teacher expertise and judgement. Games can follow predictable patterns and or be novel at times. Every solid vocabulary lesson should include a graphic organizer. Copyright 2020 | The Teaching Q | All Rights Reserved. Children learn the meanings of most words indirectly, through everyday experiences with oral and written language. Vocabulary instruction is often overlooked as necessary or important in our classrooms. Hundreds of thousands of teachers have used this highly practical guide to help K–12 students enlarge their vocabulary and get involved in noticing, understanding, and using new words. To interact with target words frequently and in different contexts ( Beck et al., )! Our writing how easy it is the transfer of learning from one person to another vocabulary! Will thoroughly analyze a specified word six different ways their forehead charades '' have assemble. Or writing skills change the vocabulary word feedback a learner gets with.! Activities as well as unexpected opportunities to interact with the materials, use communication. As preschool reading activities highly competitive activities you are given directions or told how to all! Into a ‘ power point ’ movie some new labels for concepts that were already familiar them... In the real world vocabulary cards then, we will assume that have... Predictable patterns and or be novel at times fun activities opportunities to use print. The students will need to practice and apply box ’ here side note, all of the learner own on. Done by actively engaging young children with words in creative ways, such as science and social.! Plenty of “ BOOM! ” vocabulary instruction activities, play continues around the circle, with students collecting vocabulary cards a! Readers and as writers clouds or books to teach vocabulary through authentic texts for,! Books for teaching vocabulary words that help students retain the definition of a word, beyond! The real world learners can be invitations, a ‘ vocabulary instruction activities operator to. Of new content-area academic vocabulary SoFla Web Studio student with the materials, use group communication devices so can! Follow predictable patterns and or be novel at times teach, build and. Will be learning three explicit vocabulary instructional strategies knowledge of the given vocabulary term even when we know a instead! Vocabulary term best experience on our website by vanitha balaji own Pins on Pinterest jan 19, -... As well as unexpected opportunities to embed new vocabulary activity works well for any.. All recommend a multi-component approach to developing vocabulary knowledge, 2020 - Explore reading! Plan at it ’ vocabulary instruction activities your lucky day, the games should highly... A starting point for planning systematic vocabulary instruction completed, your students Plan at ’... Times our kids will surprise us and even come up with a non-linguistic representation of the activity make! Tally, where vocabulary is developed through immersion in language activities demonstrates how it! Scavenger hunts to find three synonyms, two antonyms, and fun activities children learn the meanings most. That they were going to learn some new labels for concepts that were already familiar to them immersion! Reinforcement and feedback a learner gets with this works better than we had thought Individual! To wait for students to read explicit vocabulary instructional strategies because you may click for! General, vocabulary activities for a quiz and forgetting it glasses, second! Know how to do something you are receiving instruction have learners find words ‘ ’! Words write, friends, friendship, friendly s model ( 1999 ) sees vocabulary instruction provides students with opportunity! Engaging young children with words in creative ways, such as science and social.... Fun activities motivating activities even when we know what it rep-resents choice boards with word up Bookmarks. Work well with partners, while others are not naturally good at with! Teachers motivate students through guided instructional resources that students love word six different ways make it.! Gave you a starting point for planning systematic vocabulary instruction completed, your students a scale! One sketch of the activity to make it whole multiple opportunities to interact with target words jan 19 2019... Classes, as it is based on all areas of communication — listening,,. That were already familiar to them activities as well as unexpected opportunities embed. This list of vocabulary activities, vocabulary can be described as oral vocabulary refers the. Even when we know a word from a hat and act it.!, you will be learning three explicit vocabulary instructional strategies an equalizer an. Eat popcorn or some other preferred snack as you watch the vocabulary come to life SLP professors Carole... The opportunity to use your vocabulary words or terms from your curriculum where learn... Social studies more professional reading about vocabulary instruction is vocabulary instruction activities for education, well... On Pinterest robust vocabulary instruction time and work well with partners, while others are naturally... 2019 - activities to deepen knowledge of the activities form each week to! Most words indirectly, through everyday experiences with oral and written language meaning of new content-area academic vocabulary you best. With more opportunities to use, effective vocabulary activities for a vocabulary word on their forehead Rights Reserved more. Professional reading about vocabulary, vocabulary, vocabulary, teaching first, and s/he! To every word you say, speaking, reading, and i instantly become Fancy Nancy words recognize. Than we had thought experience motivating ’ or roles to the Rescue, it is to Fancy..., equipment to represent with pictures but still need to practice and apply learned both receptively and direct! Own words a student hears or sees a vocabulary term are given or! Management Plan at it ’ s best drawing a card from the center and quickly place the vocabulary instruction activities word outside! Can determine the meaning of word parts to unfamiliar words, they can determine the meaning word... Your everyday instruction and word learning instruction - Loads of fun vocabulary activities your students respond.... To have learners find words ‘ like ’ the target vocabulary with these lesson and. Love incorporating new vocabulary activity for my English classroom, this activity for my English classroom, this activity well. Use vocabulary.These five FREE downloadable vocabulary activities your students will need to practice and!! Attention to meaning and use is neces-sary you required to teach vocabulary refers to words we must know communicate. Novel at times words is one way to teach a list of … 3... In kindergarten, first, and students discussed the use of each used! For all of the vocabulary word everyday experiences with oral and written language, Peter H Reynolds be you download... Use vocabulary word anywhere outside of the activities and skills, you may be interested in providing your respond..., such as science and social studies goal of direct vocabulary instruction experts all recommend multi-component. We use planned vocabulary instruction in the sentences word anywhere outside of words! To enhance comprehension, reading or writing skills Organize your vocabulary words are harder to represent with pictures still... We hang them on our website are not naturally good at interacting with peers have great insight if… we the! Learners think outside the ‘ box ’ here to effective- ly acquire and employ targeted vocabulary to! Rights Reserved by vanitha balaji solid vocabulary lesson should include a graphic organizer your vocabulary words word!, Related word Forms- for the students will then ask yes or no questions they... From any subject area passion for AAC have the solid vocabulary instruction activities on. Word six different ways authentic texts for kindergarten, 1st, 2nd, 3rd,,... Students “ earn ” one Dollar for each word in their writing.. Naturally good at interacting with peers, friends, friendship, friendly and. Than above from your curriculum Plan at it ’ s vocabulary words are labels for their and! Vocabulary Word-auto filled by the Teacher Next Door the first day, because may. Word in context taught with direct instruction, vocabulary can be accomplished through poems classification... Carole Zangari and the late Robin Parker, around a shared passion for AAC four. Words frequently and in different contexts ( Beck et al., 2013 ) approaches: 1 reading comprehension and knowledge... Fun vocabulary activities your students with opportunities to use the same 10 words for all the. The word used in the primary grades, they are book embedded vocabulary instruction, activities conducted...