The official communist party newspaper Pravda said that poor construction, like other issues of neglect in the Soviet system, could be blamed on the Era of Stagnation from the era of Leonid Brezhnev. Approximately two hundred aftershocks were recorded each day for the first several days of the expedition and at the end of the recording period in February the equipment was still picking up around 100 shocks per day. The 1988 M s ≈ 6.8 earthquake in Armenia resulted in more than 40,000 human casualties and massive destruction of the northwestern region of Armenia. Though the recurrence of seismic events in Armenia does not reach the high frequency that is seen in other segments of this zone, rapid crustal deformation there is associated with active thrust faulting and volcanic activity. Activity in the area is associated with tectonic plate boundary interaction and the source of the event was a slip of a thrust fault just to the north of Spitak. "[18], Many buildings did not hold up to the shaking of the earthquake and those that did collapse often lacked any survival space, but lack of effective medical care and poor planning also contributed to the substantial scope of the disaster. On the east end the events were shallow while the western side, where the majority of the larger aftershocks were concentrated, the hypocenters were up to 14 km (8.7 mi) deep. Nuclear blast Going westward the fault split into two branches, a north-dipping reverse fault (north branch) and a right slip fault (south branch), but neither produced surface rupture. The earthquake occurred at 11:41 AM when most people were indoors. Approximately two hundred aftershocks were recorded each day for the first several days of the expedition and at the end of the recording period in February the equipment was still picking up around 100 shocks per day. The epicenter was in … Editor’s note: Aleksandr Lebed was a legendary Russian soldier and general who at one point in the 1990s looked like a shoe-in to unseat Yeltsin. The first well-documented case of liquefaction in gravelly sands was in regard to the 1983 Borah Peak earthquake in the United States. ( Log Out /  The 1988 M s ≈ 6.8 earthquake in Armenia resulted in more than 40,000 human casualties and massive destruction of the northwestern region of Armenia. In Armenia, the Arabian plate abuts against the Eurasian (Europe-Asia) plate. An engineer with the team stated that the regulations for the area mandated that buildings be required to stand up against events measuring seven or eight on the twelve degree Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik scale. Better epidemiological knowledge of the causes of death and the type of injuries and illnesses caused by earthquakes is clearly es- sential for determining appropriate relief supplies, equipment, and person- nel.l-4 On December 7, 1988, an earthquake registering 6.9 on the Richter scale hit the northern part of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the most seismically active regions of the Soviet … For many years following World War II the Soviets practiced a methodical top-down approach to urban planning and building, constructing a large number of uniformly built row style apartment units, and the Soviets plan for rebuilding Spitak did not diverge from that approach. 8:25. Waveform modeling established that the faulting originated at a depth of 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) with the epicenter on the Alavar thrust fault on the slopes of the Lesser Caucasusmountains north of Mount Aragats. The 1988 earthquake in Armenia is unique in some ways. Mount Ararat, a 5,137 m (16,854 ft) dormant volcano, lies 100 kilometers (62 mi) to the south of the quake’s epicenter in Turkey. The devastating earthquake, measuring 10 degrees on the MSK scale, took place in 40% of the territory of Armenia at 11:41 (local time), December 7, 1988. 2:19 [Deleted video] ԿԱՅԱՑՈՒՄ by HaykFilms. , but foreign help would be required to build six additional facilities. 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. Avant-garde musician Pierre Schaeffer led a 498-member French rescue team to look for survivors in Leninakan, and worked there until all foreign personnel were asked to leave after the plan to bulldoze what was left of the ruins was formulated. As a result, ... Goenjian and colleagues have been conducting ongoing research among survivors of the devastating 1988 6.9 earthquake in Armenia. Many buildings across the region sustained heavy damage or collapsed. December 7, 1988, 11:41 - Richter magnitude 6.9 December 7, 1988, 11:45 – Richter magnitude 5.8. The earthquake measured 6.8 on the surface wave magnitude scale and had a maximum perceived intensity… The area where Armenia lies is of interest to seismologists and geologists because of the relatively early stage of continental collision occurring there and because the earthquake’s strong aftershock sequence and significant surface faulting presented scientists with an environment to study reverse faulting. Several investigations of that event took place in the 1980s and early 1990s and the primary conclusions were that a critical condition for liquefaction to occur in that type of soil was the presence of a low permeable crust that did not allow pore water pressures to subside and that the assessment method and associated standard penetration test values used with sandy soils also applied to gravelly soils. The shock occurred in the northern region of Armenia (then part of the Soviet Union) which is vulnerable to large and destructive earthquakes … The Americans donated generously as well, with Washington dispatching eight official planeloads of official relief aid plus a Lockheed C-141 Starlifter from Italy. “In the Armenian Republic, thousands of people have died,” Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard A. Shevardnadze said at a news conference on Dec. 8, 1988. Though the recurrence of seismic events in Armenia does not reach the high frequency that is seen in other segments of this zone, rapid crustal deformation there is associated with activethrust faulting and volcanic activity. In pictures: 25th anniversary of Armenian earthquake, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1988_Armenian_earthquake&oldid=994215973, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 17:17. Gorbachev set aside 5 billion rubles (about US$8 billion) in funds for a start on what would likely be a recovery cost that would exceed the cleanup bill for the 1986 nuclear and radiation accident in Ukraine. The cities of Spitak, Leninakan (Gyumri) and Kirovakan (Vanadzor) were greatly affected with large losses of life and devastating effects to buildings and other structures. In support of the relief effort, recording artists united to produce several music-related contributions for the victims of the quake. Leninakan earthquake in the Armenian region of Spitak 1988 by DiFilm. Private donations from the United States were also significant. The Soviet’s grid plan road scheme was found to not take into account the hillside at the new city’s location, and the American’s plan included finer details of how commercial centers and government facilities were grouped together in an open and communal style. Region: Armenia Theme: Politics. [32] That deluge of western aid was a byproduct of the disaster that may have had a positive effect on Soviet Union–United States relations. The highway’s embankment failed, and though the site was repaired immediately, the resulting damage to the highway caused considerable delay in getting people and supplies into and out of the area following the disaster. ( Log Out /  “On the evening of the 7th, the “Time” program announced a huge earthquake in Armenia… Despite the tensions of the Cold War, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev formally asked the United States for humanitarian help within a few days of the earthquake, the first such request since the late 1940s. The soviet geophysicists detonated 100 kilograms of TNT in a hole drilled near the mainshock epicenter and the resulting shock waves were detected and used to help pinpoint a more accurate crustal velocity value of 5.3 to 5.4 km/s. Prague, 17 March 1998 (RFE/RL) -- Nearly ten years ago, on December 7, 1988, a massive earthquake rocked northwestern Armenia, killing some 50,000 inhabitants. The range is situated along an active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps in southern Europe to the Himalayas in Asia. Mikhail Gorbachev was in New York on his first day of visits with Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush at the time of the earthquake, and once the scale of the disaster was realized, a quick departure was made back to Armenia, with the Kremlin formally asking for American help. At the Yerevan airport, western pilots reported a breakdown in air traffic controlcommunications, with flight controllers not delivering the necessary flight navigation instructions, allowing for a critical lack of separation as foreign planes made their way into the area. The highway's embankment failed, and though the site was repaired immediately, the resulting damage to the highway caused considerable delay in getting people and supplies into and out of the area following the disaster. Although not the strongest, this was the largest earthquake to hit Armenia. Mikhail Gorbachev with Ronald Reagan and George H.W. [23], In late December the last of the survivors that were able to be extricated were pulled from the fallen buildings, rescue operations ceased, and the cleanup began, beginning with the destruction of buildings that were too heavily damaged to be repaired. Seventy-eight people were killed while on a relief mission to Leninakan when a Soviet Ilyushin Il-76 crashed on approach to the airport there. A total of five sub-events occurred in the first eleven seconds and an aftershock measuring 5.8 (local magnitude) occurred four minutes and twenty seconds later. Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca arranged for a fund drive, and in Chicago (one of five major Armenian population centers in the US) the community raised $800,000 and donated 9,000 kilograms (20,000 lb) of supplies. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ Spitaki yerkrašarž), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). [6][16], Some of the strongest shaking occurred in industrial areas with chemical and food processing plants, electrical substations, and power plants. On Dec 7 1988 a devastating earthquake hit the Soviet republic of Armenia, killing around 25,000 people. Twelve days after the mainshock a French-Soviet team installed a temporary seismic network in the epicentral area to record aftershock activity (a separate expedition from the United States also visited the site). Both Leninakan and Kirovakan were roughly equidistant from the shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage. In February 1989 one hundred construction workers were assembling temporary housing for themselves in Leninakan with a plan to start on the local population’s housing by the end of the month, though schools and factories were also on the list of facilities to be rebuilt. Moving westward closer to the central segments though, a transition of the fault type was becoming apparent, where an almost equal distribution of reverse fault mechanisms were observed as the strike-slip type. Mkhitarian said that 130 factories were destroyed and 170,000 people were out of work. A second site that was close to the fault, also near the Pambak river and with similar soil deposits, did not experience liquefaction, though it would have experienced the same high peak ground accelerations as the failed highway embankment. There the seismic signals were digitized, along with an internal time signal and an external DCF77 time signal, and stored on magnetic tape. Half of those funds were from World Vision International, a California-based relief and development umbrella organization, and the other half were his own personal donation. Red tape inevitably held up some of the rescue efforts and criticism of the perceived flawed processes soon followed. Oganesian3 The studyattempts to identifypredictors ofinjuries amongpersons who were hospitalized following the Armenian earthquake of 7 December 1988. The cities of Spitak, Leninakan (Gyumri), and Kirovakan (Vanadzor) were greatly affected with large losses of life and devastating effects to buildings and other structures. Mount Ararat, a 5,137 m (16,854 ft) dormant volcano, lies 100 km (62 mi) to the south of the quake's epicenter in Turkey. According to the book, Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, the man answered: “What do my hands matter, everything I cherish is under there – my son, my daughter, my wife and my mother.” For those fortunate enough to be pulled from the rubble, kidney failure was an immediate concern. The crash was blamed on the pilots’ failure to properly adjust the altimeter following a miscommunication with the air traffic controllers. What follows is a passage from his memoirs pertaining to that day. The Armenian earthquake of 1988: a milestone in the evolution of nephrology. The cost of rebuilding would be a severe obstacle for Perestroika, Gorbachev's plan for economic restructuring. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Armenian: Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ, Spitaki yerkrasharj), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). While foreign doctors did assist with the Chernobyl incident, the Soviet relief effort after the earthquake was augmented by the largest foreign cooperation since World War II. Gorbachev set aside 5 billion rubles (about $8 billion U.S. dollars) in funds for a start on what would likely be a recovery cost that would exceed the cleanup bill for the 1986 nuclear and radiation accident in Ukraine. Boris Karapetyan, director of earthquake studies at the Yerevan Polytechnical Institute, said of the difficult rebuilding process "Coordination is a major, major problem. Along the western segments the fault split into two branches with one to the southwest and the other to the northwest Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. In order to prevent kidney failure or death, the treatment requires prompt hospitalization, and, according to the doctor, the victims were not receiving adequate medication and dialysis and, as a result, most died before the arrival of the first foreign dialysis machines. Earthquake engineering experts scrutinized building construction styles and found fault in the poorly constructed apartments and other buildings that were built during the Era of Stagnation under the rule of Leonid Brezhnev. Between 25,000 and 50,000 were killed and up to 130,000 were injured. The mainshock produced surface rupture and propagated to the west with a separate strike-slip sub-event occurring two seconds later that propagated to the southeast. At that time 20 projects had completed the planning process and some had been approved and construction started. Some say that this earthquake was caused by an atmoic bomb test done in the Arctic ocean by Soviet Union. While that shock may have been related to the Pambak-Sevan fault, the October 22, 1926 Leninakan earthquake to the west of the 1988 event also had a maximum intensity of MSK VIII. Washington immediately responded with offers of doctors, medical equipment, and rescue teams, and by the first weekend the first US plane arrived in Yerevan with search and rescue teams and detection dogs. The three cities closest to the fault rupture experienced different levels of damage. Gorbachev was asleep in a New York hotel when the quake hit. The daily newspaper Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya noted that there were families living out in the open even while there were an abundance of tents available. [32], A second air transport incident occurred the following day at Yerevan (capital of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic) when an Antonov An-12 from Yugoslavia crashed, killing all seven crew on board. Health minister Yevgeniy Chazov urged the creation of a governmental body to assist with disaster management. In 1988 he was in Azerbaijan’s capital Baku, just as the news that an earthquake had leveled Armenia’s Yerevan hit. The soviet geophysicists detonated 100 kilograms of TNT in a hole drilled near the mainshock epicenter and the resulting shock waves were detected and used to help pinpoint a more accurate crustal velocity value of 5.3 to 5.4 km/s. At that time the International Atomic Energy Agency’s assistant director general Morris Rosen said of the situation “… you would never build a plant in that area, that’s for sure, with what’s known now. Latest earthquakes in or near Armenia past 30 days. While on site during aftershock monitoring, the US research team verified the presence of soil amplification effects when pronounced difference in readings were observed when compared with nearby rock sites. 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